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L152H
Boundary Monuments: Artificial and Natural MarkersTX PLS Board Accepted Course (FL PLS Board Approved Course 8324)

Patrick C. Garner, PLS

Boundary Monuments: Artificial and Natural Markers is the only available course that specifically examines the monuments that surveyors commonly use and/or encounter in their boundary practice. The course is a thorough discussion of historic monuments and contemporary markers used for horizontal control.

Specifically, it will help today’s surveyor identify property markers as well as assess the permanence of various monuments. The course emphasizes an often forgotten truism that every early surveyor knew: Permanence and visibility of corners always trump accuracy. This “take away� message is one that modern surveyors should note, because their over-dependence on electronic equipment and fealty to property legal descriptions often blinds them to the forensic research necessary for correct boundary surveys. In other words, locating the correct corner is always more critical than a mathematically perfect survey.

Land surveying has a rich—and sometimes quirky—history of using monuments that were particular to a given region. Surveyors used what was available and what was peer-recognized. Accepted monuments varied from wood stakes to iron pipes to wheelbarrow axles.

Natural monuments, on the other hand, were invariably physical features found in the region—creek centerlines, riverbanks, rock outcrops, trees or abrupt changes in topography. These, too, varied by region, with outcrop tops, for instance, commonly used in New England. In areas like the Midwest, lake edges were frequently used.

Accordingly, the course is divided into two sections that focus on these legally recognized types of monumentation. Heavily illustrated, it lists and discusses each commonly encountered type of monument. The ideal, modern moment is discussed, as well as why it is seldom used. Students are then tested for their understanding of these basic differences. Boundary Monuments: Artificial and Natural Markers is an essential review for both new and experienced boundary professionals.

This course includes a multiple-choice quiz at the end, which is designed to enhance the understanding of the course materials.


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NY PE & PLS: You must choose courses that are technical in nature or related to matters of laws and ethics contributing to the health and welfare of the public. NY Board does not accept courses related to office management, risk management, leadership, marketing, accounting, financial planning, real estate, and basic CAD. Specific course topics that are on the borderline and are not acceptable by the NY Board have been noted under the course description on our website.

AIA Members: You must take the courses listed under the category "AIA/CES Registered Courses" if you want us to report your Learning Units (LUs) to AIA/CES. If you take courses not registered with AIA/CES, you need to report the earned Learning Units (not qualified for HSW credits) using Self Report Form provided by AIA/CES.

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