Design of High-Purity Water Systems
Charles D. Riley, Jr., P.E.
This course examines
the specifications for high purity water as established by various standards
setting organizations such as The American Society for Testing and Materials,
National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, and the US Pharmacopoeia.
In addition, the course examines the nature of water, the types of contaminants
in water, and treatment methods for the control of contaminants in water. The
design of most high purity water systems consists of a number of treatment methods
integrated together to achieve the water quality objectives. The course examines
common high purity water system process designs used to meet the various water
This course includes a multiple-choice quiz at the end, which is designed to enhance the understanding of the course materials.
At the conclusion of this 2-hour course, the student will be familiar with:
Water is an exceptionally aggressive solvent that attacks most of the substances it contacts. More substances dissolve in water than any other solvent. Most of the known elements can be found dissolved in water, some in high concentrations and others only in trace amounts. As water moves through the natural hydrologic cycle, it dissolves substances it contacts. Contaminants include atmospheric gases (oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide), dissolved minerals and organic substances, and suspended colloidal matter. Water also provides an ideal environment for the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms if the necessary nutrients and conditions for growth exist.
Depending on the type and concentration of contaminants, most natural waters are not suitable for potable use much less for most research and industrial applications. Most all municipalities and other purveyors of potable water provide some level of water treatment to make the water suitable for consumption. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established legally enforceable National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR) for public water systems. These regulations are published on the U.S. EPA website (www.epa.gov).
Most high-purity water systems use potable water as a feed water source and provide additional treatment to remove residual contaminants to meet the water quality specifications for the given application. Reagent grade water specifications have been established by such organizations as the College of American Pathologists (CAP), National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
The United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) establishes specifications for compendial water used in the manufacturing of drug products. The two major compendial water types are USP purified water and USP water for injection.
The ASTM and Semiconductor
Equipment and Materials International (SEMI) have established specifications
for electronics grade water used to manufacture microelectronic devices. The
Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) has established
water quality standards for water used in hemodialysis applications. Many industries
have established unique water quality standards specific for their use.
The course content is in a PDF file (97 KB) Design of High-Purity Water Systems. You need to open or download this document to study this course.
Once you finish studying the above course content you need to take a quiz to obtain the PDH credits.